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Until , the band continued to perform at more live venues and festivals around the world. Morello soon contacted Brad Wilk, who had unsuccessfully auditioned for Lock Up. This lineup named themselves Rage Against the Machine, after a song de la Rocha had written for his former underground hardcore punk band Inside Out also to be the title of the unrecorded Inside Out full-length album.

Shortly after forming, they gave their first public performance on October 23, , at the Quad of California State University, Northridge. Not all 12 songs made it onto the final album—two were eventually included as B-sides , while three others never saw an official release.

Morello said, "Epic agreed to everything we asked—and they've followed through We never saw a[n] [ideological] conflict as long as we maintained creative control. The band's debut album, Rage Against the Machine , reached triple platinum status, driven by heavy radio play of the song " Killing in the Name ", a heavy, driving track featuring only eight lines of lyrics.

The "Fuck you" version, which contains 17 iterations of the word fuck , was once accidentally played on the BBC Radio 1 Top 40 singles show on February 21, The album was produced by Garth Richardson. To promote the album, the band went on tour, playing at Lollapalooza and as support for Suicidal Tendencies in Europe. After their debut album, the band appeared on the soundtrack for the film Higher Learning with the song " Year of tha Boomerang ".

An early version of " Tire Me " also appeared in the movie. Subsequently, they re-recorded the song "Darkness" from their original demo for the soundtrack of The Crow , while " No Shelter " appeared on the Godzilla soundtrack. Despite rumors of a breakup for several years, Rage Against the Machine's second album, Evil Empire , entered Billboard's Top chart at number one in , and subsequently rose to triple platinum status. Their planned two-song performance was cut to one song when the band attempted to hang inverted American flags from their amplifiers "a sign of distress or great danger" , [16] a protest against having Republican presidential candidate Steve Forbes as guest host on the program that night.

In , the band opened for U2 on their PopMart Tour , for which all of Rage's profits went to support social organizations, [17] including U. Police in several jurisdictions unsuccessfully attempted to have the concerts cancelled, citing amongst other reasons, the bands' "violent and anti-law enforcement philosophies". A live video, also titled Rage Against the Machine , was released later the same year. In Rage Against the Machine played at the Woodstock '99 concert. The following release, The Battle of Los Angeles also debuted at number one in , selling , copies in the first week and then going double-platinum.

In , the band planned to support the Beastie Boys on the "Rhyme and Reason" tour; however, the tour was cancelled when Beastie Boys drummer Mike D suffered a serious injury. On January 26, , an altercation during filming of the video for " Sleep Now in the Fire ", directed by Michael Moore , caused the doors of the New York Stock Exchange to be closed and the band to be escorted from the site by security [22] after band members attempted to gain entry into the exchange.

Moore had permission to use the steps of Federal Hall National Memorial but did not have a permit to shoot on the sidewalk or the street, nor did he have a loud-noise permit or the proper parking permits. When the band left the steps, police officers apprehended Moore and led him away. After the Best Rock Video award was given to Limp Bizkit , however, Commerford climbed onto the scaffolding of the set.

Commerford and his bodyguard were sentenced to a night in jail and de la Rocha reportedly left the awards after the stunt. Morello recalled that Commerford relayed his plan to the rest of the band before the show, and that both de la Rocha and Morello advised him against it immediately after Bizkit was presented the award. On October 18, , de la Rocha released a statement announcing his departure from the band. He said, "I feel that it is now necessary to leave Rage because our decision-making process has completely failed.

It is no longer meeting the aspirations of all four of us collectively as a band, and from my perspective, has undermined our artistic and political ideal. We would even have fist fights over whether our T-shirts should be mauve or camouflaged! It was ridiculous. We were patently political, internally combustible.

It was ugly for a long time". In the wake of the September 11 attacks , the controversial Clear Channel memorandum contained a long list of what the memo termed "lyrically questionable" songs for the radio, uniquely listing all of Rage Against the Machine's songs. After the group's breakup, Morello, Wilk, and Commerford decided to stay together and find a new vocalist. The first Audioslave single, " Cochise ", was released in early November , and a self-titled debut album followed to mainly positive reviews. Compared to Rage Against the Machine, most of Audioslave's music was apolitical, although some songs touched on political issues.

Their second album Out of Exile debuted at the number one position on the Billboard charts in After months of inactivity and rumors of a breakup, Audioslave disbanded on February 15, , after Cornell announced he was leaving the band. Morello began his own solo career in , playing political acoustic folk music at open-mic nights and various clubs under the alias the Nightwatchman , which he formed as an outlet for his political views while playing apolitical music with Audioslave.

In February , he announced a solo album, entitled One Man Revolution , which was released in April During the latter days of his career as the Nightwatchman, Morello joined up with Boots Riley and formed the rap rock group Street Sweeper Social Club , which released its debut self-titled album in June Members of the band had been offered large sums of money to reunite for concerts and tours, and had turned the offers down. Bush administration since Rage Against the Machine's dissolution.

On April 14, , Morello and de la Rocha reunited onstage early to perform a brief acoustic set at a Coalition of Immokalee Workers rally in downtown Chicago. Morello described the event as "very exciting for everybody in the room, myself included". When asked in May if the band were planning on writing a new album, Morello replied:. There are no plans to do that That's a whole other ball of wax right there.

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Writing and recording albums is a whole different thing than getting back on the bike laughs , you know, and playing these songs. But I think that the one thing about the Rage catalog is that to me none of it feels dated. You know, it doesn't feel at all like a nostalgia show.


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It feels like these are songs that were born and bred to be played now. Morello declined to comment about the possibility of a new album when interviewed by MTV News in April As far as us recording music in the future, I don't know where we all fit with that. We've all embraced each other's projects and support them, and that's great.

After a 4-hour stand-off with police, Obama's campaign agreed to meet with members of Iraq Veterans Against the War and hear their demands. Paul , but were prevented from doing so by the police. Instead, de la Rocha and Morello rapped and sang through a megaphone. In December , Tom Morello revealed that Rage Against the Machine shows in were a possibility, although plans for the band to record a new studio album were very unlikely.

When asked by Billboard. The thing is there's only so many hours in the musical day, and mine are very occupied right now". Morello elaborated that the Nightwatchman is now "my principal musical focus, as I see it, for the remainder of my life. From the earliest days of playing open mic nights at coffee houses, it was apparent to me that this music was as important to me as any music I've ever been involved in. It really encapsulates everything I want to do as an artist. Stating that they may use the momentum from the campaign to get back into the studio and write a follow-up record to s Renegades after 10 years.

When talking to NME, Zack de la Rocha said: "I think it's a genuine possibility, We have to get our heads around what we're going to do towards the end of the year and finish up on some other projects and we'll take it from there. It generated nationwide publicity and took the track " Killing in the Name " to the coveted Christmas number one slot in the UK Singles Chart , which had been dominated for four consecutive years from by winners from the popular TV show The X Factor.

On the morning of December 17, Rage Against the Machine played a slightly censored version of "Killing in the Name" live on Radio 5 Live , but four repeats of 'Fuck you I won't do what you tell me' were aired before the song was pulled. The campaign was ultimately successful, and "Killing in the Name" became the number-one single in the UK for Christmas We're very very ecstatic and excited about the song reaching the number one spot.

We want to thank everyone that participated in this incredible, organic, grass-roots campaign. It says more about the spontaneous action taken by young people throughout the UK to topple this very sterile pop monopoly. When young people decide to take action they can make what's seemingly impossible, possible. The band also set a new record, achieving the biggest download sales total in a first week ever in the UK charts. This proved to be popular, with many users facing connection issues. The tickets were all allocated by that same day.

Zack de la Rocha had stated that it was a definite possibility that the band would record a new album, the first time since 's Renegades. It was the first time the band played in those countries. During an interview with the Chilean newspaper La Tercera in October , de la Rocha allegedly confirmed that a new album was in the works, with a possibility of a release.

De la Rocha is reported as saying, "We are all bigger and more mature and we do not fall into the problems we faced 10 or 15 years ago. This is different and we project a lot: we are working on a new album due out next year, perhaps summer for the northern hemisphere". During an interview on July 30, , Commerford seemingly contradicted Morello's comments, stating that new material was being written, and specific plans for the next two years were in place. He simply responded, "maybe". The band announced on October 9 via their Facebook page that they would be releasing a special 20th anniversary box set to commemorate the group's debut album.

The full box set contains never-before-released concert material, including the band's Finsbury Park show and footage from early in their career, as well as a digitally-remastered version of the album, b-sides and the original demo tape on disc for the first time. Rising may have been their final show. In May , the band launched a countdown website, prophetsofrage.

Accompanying the clock was an image of a broken slash through a circle with silhouettes of five people all extending their arms and clenched fists with the hashtag " takethepowerback" underneath the timer. This led to speculation of the return of the band later in the year. However, a source close to Rage Against the Machine told Rolling Stone that the Prophets of Rage website had nothing do with the announcement of a "Rage-specific reunion", but added that "some of the members" of the band have been working on a project that will include live shows.

The band toured through the remainder of and played the songs of the three bands in which the members of this group participated in before. Despite Morello, Wilk and Commerford's involvement in Prophets of Rage, Commerford confirmed in an interview with Rolling Stone that Rage Against the Machine has not split up, explaining, "We just do things our own way. Throughout our career, we never did what anyone wanted us to do. We never made the records people wanted us to make. We never played by the rules people wanted us to play by.

And here we are, 25 years later, still a band. Clearly that means something. And if we did ever play or make new music or anything, it would be a very big deal. And there's a lot of bands that I've seen come along during that year period that did everything the record companies and the powers-that-be wanted them to do, and they sold millions of records. But where are they now?

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They're gone. Where Rage Against the Machine lives, is this summer in these songs that we are playing. And we have nothing but the greatest love and honor and respect for Zack de la Rocha, the brilliant lyricist of Rage Against the Machine, who is working on his own music, which I'm sure will be fantastic—he's a great artist in his own right. In May , Wilk stated that "nothing would make him happier" if the band were to reunite, but stated "It's just really a matter of getting us all on the same page".

Rage Against the Machine has been described as rap metal , [] [] [] rap rock , [] [] [] [] [] funk metal , [] [] [] alternative metal , [] [] [] and nu metal. Anti-war and civil rights movements. The members of Rage Against the Machine are well known for their Anti-authoritarian and revolutionary political views, and almost all of the band's songs focus on these views.

Key to the band's identity, Rage Against the Machine has voiced viewpoints highly critical of the domestic and foreign policies of current and previous U. Throughout its existence, Rage Against the Machine and its individual members participated in political protests and other activism to advocate these beliefs. The band sees its music as a vehicle for social activism; De la Rocha explained, "I'm interested in spreading those ideas through art, because music has the power to cross borders, to break military sieges and to establish real dialogue.

America touts itself as the land of the free, but the number one freedom that you and I have is the freedom to enter into a subservient role in the workplace. Once you exercise this freedom you've lost all control over what you do, what is produced, and how it is produced. And in the end, the product doesn't belong to you. The only way you can avoid bosses and jobs is if you don't care about making a living. Which leads to the second freedom: the freedom to starve. Some critics have accused the group of hypocrisy for voicing commitment to leftist causes while being millionaires signed to Epic Records , a subsidiary of media conglomerate Sony Records.

When you live in a capitalistic society, the currency of the dissemination of information goes through capitalistic channels. No, because that's where people buy their books. We're not interested in preaching to just the converted. It's great to play abandoned squats run by anarchists , but it's also great to be able to reach people with a revolutionary message, people from Granada Hills to Stuttgart. Yeah, to get as many people as possible to join the political debate, to get the dialogue going. I was wondering today, why would anyone climb to the roof of the American Embassy with a banner that says "Free Mumia Abu-Jamal ", why do you do that?

That's to get the international press' attention. The international network that Sony has available, is to me the perfect tool you know, it can get even more people to join a revolutionary awareness and fight. Rage Against the Machine has won two Grammy Awards with six nominations altogether. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Race Against the Machine. This article is about the band itself. For their various self-titled works, see Rage Against the Machine disambiguation.

American rock band. Rage Against the Machine at Vegoose , Rap metal funk metal alternative metal nu metal rap rock. Epic Revelation. Sample of " Know Your Enemy " from the band's eponymous debut album Main article: Rage Against the Machine reunion tour. Main article: Political views and activism of Rage Against the Machine. Ford William Z. Active organizations.

Defunct organizations. Related topics. Main article: Rage Against the Machine discography. Archived from the original on July 18, Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved August 26, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved February 27, Retrieved February 19, Archived from the original on September 21, Archived from the original on October 12, Retrieved September 8, Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved February 17, Archived from the original on September 15, Archived from the original on September 24, Archived from the original on August 20, Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved June 9, Archived from the original on July 9, Archived from the original on August 25, The State.

Archived from the original on April 4, Seattle Times. Archived from the original on May 11, Retrieved July 11, Rolling Stone. Archived from the original magazine article on September 17, Green Left Weekly March 15, Retrieved October 11, MTV News. Archived from the original on March 13, January 28, Archived from the original on October 9, Retrieved September 28, Rage Against The Machine. Martin's Press. Retrieved January 18, Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved September 20, MTV Networks.

Archived from the original on September 11, Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved March 16, Archived from the original on December 27, The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved April 17, Archived from the original on July 25, I represent myself in action to a spectator through speech. Such is also the case in this excerpt of a cooking show, this dance class , this mathematics lesson , and this more domestic tutorial see also Ocho cortado.

Occur when B and C are mixed up, that is to say when the action described is carried out by the person speaker A is addressing: thus, in this recording , an owner A gives instructions B to his dog, who is the recipient C of his speech. This relationship to indexation can thus produce the impression that the event described is being mutually constructed, another example being this recording of a game of Pictionary or the turmoil of giving birth see also Montre ce que tu sais faire , Vas-y Isabelle.

When A and C are mixed up, that is to say when a speaker A describes and comments on an action B they are witnessing for themselves C. When A, B, and C are mixed up, that is to say when a speaker A comments on an action B they are carrying out for themselves C.

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In this excerpt of the film Mesrine , for example, a police inspector A reads what he is typing B aloud for himself C see also the borderline case of Ah-Hooooh. This occurrence of writing while reading aloud, as if for oneself, is quite common—another example can be found in this scene from real life.

But it seems clear that this kind of action, when carried out in public, takes its public nature into account. The excerpt just cited would thus be an example of the current sub-category but also a case of what we have called explanation. Indeed, the sub-categories described above are not mutually exclusive.

A player in a game can both follow their own actions and those of other players; a composer telling a tale can both comment on what they are doing and describe it as an almost external action that has already taken place. Finally, one can see how observations for oneself and instructions to cameramen are intermingled in a stage control room, or how certain activities such as flying together require both concentration on oneself and concentration expressed to others.

Remarkable modulations in tone that make speech tend toward song, chanting, or litany. At times uneven, repetitive, contrasted, or monotonous, melody is what gives speech its expressiveness. Selknam Shaman, Argentina, excerpt of Les voix du monde : une anthologie des expressions vocales , Sermon by a pastor in the United States, excerpt of Les Voix du monde : une anthologie des expressions orales , Martin, F. Charpigny, and A. Genouiller, Aix-en-Provence, Maria Callas and Barbara Shuttleworth, excerpt of a recording of a masterclass at the Julliard School, Johann Schneider Ammann, President of the Helvetic Confederation, excerpt from a video address on the occasion of the Day of the Sick, Melody Remarkable modulations in tone that make speech tend toward song, chanting, or litany.

School grammar books identify and teach three types of intonation corresponding to three modes of expression: declarative, interrogative, and exclamative. The second is for questions, the voice rising into a small upward curve at the end of an utterance to mark a suspension waiting to be resolved. The last case, for surprise, is also ascendant but more sharply so, as if suspended at its peak by the event that made it happen.

In reality, though, speech undergoes much more subtle modulations: it is obvious that we do not always speak in the same tone, and that even the most ordinary form of speech modulates its pitch and rhythm. As with timbre, certain speakers can be recognized by the melody of their speech; certain situations can also be recognized by the melodies they call for.

Certain contexts produce more or less regular or uneven melodies, marking the affective or rhetorical nature of the enunciative situation in question. Finally, speech can also tend toward chanting or litany. In such cases, we say that it sounds like a speaker is singing when they talk, and the melodic aspect of their speech, freed of the necessities of address, will favor expressiveness over expression.

Certain forms of speech are built from pre-established tonal canons. Like this French railway announcement , for example, played on train station platforms. This paradoxical excerpt is both regular and strangely inorganic. In many cases, speech is very clearly structured or implied by certain melodic standards that have been more or less well assimilated by a speaker.

This sermon , this response to an interview, this story , all aim to give life to a scene or utterance that will make them more lively and attractive. This process is characterized by repetitive utterances in which a speaker tries to make each iteration unique through pitch variation, as in shipping forecasts , this tongue twister , or this Gertrude Stein reading. This kind of melody gives speech rhythm, as can be heard in this excerpt from an Abdellatif Kechiche film or in this lecture by Vladimir Jankelevitch.

Physiological problems for this transsexual person going through hormone treatments , or, more largely, ailments produced by an overflow of emotion or the desire to produce some.


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Speech with uneven melodies belongs to a system that exceeds the typical boundaries of intonation, calling out to the pre-verbal kingdom of children or animals, as with this cowherd from Poitou guiding his animals , or this man imitating birdcalls. A child discovers and tunes its vocal apparatus through a series of intuitive scales that allow it to measure tessitura and learn to modulate expressiveness. This is not far from the approach of certain twentieth-century poets or composers like Raoul Hausmann or Luciano Berio , who dismantled and reinvented traditional modes of singing and habitual forms of speech.

Often, the extension of certain vowels pushes these forms of speech close to song, as in this hypnosis tape, this reading of a poem by its author, or this piece by John Cage. Hence, the collection also provides us with forms of speech whose tonal variations push them close to song. This is the murky domain of sing-speech or speak-song. Opera recitatives , for example, are a means of playing with the tonal organization of speech. Occurs when speech puts itself on display, exposes or listens to itself, puts on a show.

Overemphasis, which can be restrained or theatrical, is produced by making use of a certain number of speech parameters including intonation, articulation, accentuation, rhythm, vocabulary, and spacing. Dominique de Villepin, excerpt of a statement to press just outside of the Clearstream trial, Overemphasis Occurs when speech puts itself on display, exposes or listens to itself, puts on a show.

The French word emphase does not have the same connotations as the English word emphasis. As can be seen on a synthesizer, emphasis is an operation that acts upon amplitude and frequency to modify an audio signal. When discussing breadth, however, emphase ,or overemphasis, is the process by which words amplify certain of their characteristics.

We can find examples of overemphasis using various sonic volume, timbre, pitch, length and linguistic vocabulary, prosody parameters. Overemphasis by accentuation is typically found in advertising utterances or movie trailers , which draw their power of conviction from it. This gap is required in theatrical speech even when not used for dramatic effect, as can notably be heard here with Sarah Bernhardt. One could imagine that this recording, which dates from , gives us a glimpse of the diction typical of the time.

In this last example, we can hear the specific moment when everyday speech shifts into poetic verse. Loss of control happens when a speaker takes the plunge and lets their words overtake the spectacular intentions that may have led to their outburst in the first place. Such is the case when the Dictator dramatizes his anger to the point of temporarily losing his voice, the performative aspect of the outburst presenting his actions as outstanding and attempting to give them an extraordinary quality.

Everything is increased, as if the speaker did not have enough vocal cords to speak with and was forced to gather organic resources more deeply within themselves like this conductor whose instructions are louder than the orchestra. These kinds of games can have an evolving nature. If overemphasis takes root over time, loss of control becomes an unstable process. And when a speaker loses their self-control, it is common to hear overemphasis lead to emptiness. Loss of control can happen when reaching a climax, giving the outburst a parodic quality.

Occurs when speech distributes its tonic accents into regular patterns. Australian aboriginal chant, excerpt of Les Voix du monde : une anthologie des expressions vocales , Fassbinder, Coran reading by a Berber choir from the High Atlas mountains, excerpt of Les Voix du monde : anthologie des expressions orales , Pacing Occurs when speech distributes its tonic accents into regular patterns.

All speech is structured rhythmically. The most everyday forms of speech are marked by more or less regular accents and syllable onsets. How does pacing support its speaker? How do we use pacing? It paces itself. Indeed, pacing is not an inflexible phenomenon of speech: it fluctuates—and can often be seen as a process.

We hear discourse being paced, or trending toward a certain pace, as in this excerpt where an English miner on strike calls for solidarity and justice , this Patti Smith performance , or this message by an unusual American politician see also We are now the generation of the heart of the fight back. Sometimes pacing happens within the context of interlocution, in the game of alternation that constitutes speaking in turn.

Some forms of speech are remarkable for the extreme nature of their pacing, for the extent to which they do not operate by the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed beats, but by accentuating every syllable. This reading by Charles Pennequin offers an example. The paradox of this hammered form of pacing can be stated as follows: although spoken at the most regular possible tempo, it is perhaps the least rhythmic form of speech imaginable. As we saw with Obama, one of the most obvious effects of pacing is momentum.

Pacing can also sometimes lead to a trance-like effect on the speaker and those around them see also: Fabienne Tabard , Dedication to the Tackling of the Beast and the Dragon , Santa Cruz. Even more paradigmatic is this excerpt of a documentary extolling the virtues of a method designed to stop stuttering , where the disability is overcome by cutting up an utterance and hammering it into separate syllables. It can be a big help in reading a long question with limited time during a game, or it can function as a dramatic tool, as in this excerpt from a Fassbinder film.

Pacing used as a means of saturation is best heard in tightly woven speech that progresses without spacing. This kind of tense rhythm makes interruption and interlocution equally difficult. This statement by lawyer Philippe Bilger gives us a very clear example of the process. It is a strategy used for convincing others. It is therefore not surprising to hear strong forms of pacing in political speech. Some forms of speech are paced by an external activity they are indexed to: this is the case with horse racing commentary , auctions , or even when accompanying someone giving birth.

Lastly, pacing can function as a way of doing something together, like reciting a poem or being with others for the duration of a protest or religious ritual see the entry on Chorality. Occurs when speech is addressed to an absent interlocutor. Lacking any response, the speaker builds their speech around a projected image of the recipient in more or less intimate, generic, real, or stereotyped ways.

Projection Occurs when speech is addressed to an absent interlocutor. Projection is relatively recent in the history of human speech. Before the invention of recording, situations where one spoke to an absent interlocutor were rather rare: prayer or invocation, theater or poetry, madness. Today, forms of speech containing projection are very present in our lives, whether in television, radio, recorded announcements, vocal servers, voicemail messages, or online videos.

Without an interlocutor, however, a speaker relies on their own idea of who they are speaking to, giving their speech the particular character of a voice spoken in emptiness. Speech that is generically addressed, paced by default to suit everyone , all types of interlocutor, can be heard every day. This is speech whose neutrality has been carefully thought out. It is the speech of vocal servers , recorded announcements in the subway, airport announcements , or rituals like auctions , for example.

It is also the speech of television newsreaders , which must be able to be received by every category of viewer. These greetings are standardized according to how the speaker designs their panel of listeners, and how they choose to create a more or less distant relationship with them. This reading of a Serge Gainsbourg song shows another way of searching for a certain form of address to all.

More specifically, we can hear speakers constantly move from a present-concrete form of address to a projected-abstract form of address. This last case, excerpted from a hypnosis recording , is interesting in that the desire to create speech that works for any listener does not imply the elaboration of a neutral form as it does in previous examples but, on the contrary, a stylized form so strange that it corresponds to no predefined relationship and can thus be suited to anybody.

The process of projection is particularly interesting when the speaker addresses a given category of people: by imagining idealized members of these categories, the speaker reveals which preconceived ideas they may have about them. This can apply to the idea of a child , a potential buyer of an exceptional instrument, a fan , a possible adversary , a john , a viewer or even a solitary radio listener.

This is also the case with manuals or tutorials: the speaker addresses themselves to a panel of home gymnastics or zouk enthusiasts of varying sizes; to listeners wanting to learn a John Lennon song or how to speak English with a Russian accent. One even speaks in a very similar manner to the owner of a plant, or to the plant itself. In the same way, this excerpt from a Sylvie Joly sketch imagines a scene with an annoying interlocutor. Lastly, prayer is a perfect example of projected speech and, moreover, develops a relationship that is completely fantasized for some but very intimate and real for others.

When projection takes shape around an absent interlocutor that we know well, what is used in the resulting discourse is the memory of the relationship we have, or dream of having, with said person: projection then shows us the essence of this relationship, at least according to how the speaker projects it. Such is the case in this tape from a woman to her mother see also Tu es mon autre.

But this process can also be found in non-artistic situations: projection is what allows a speaker to take on an identity that suits them without the risk of being put in their place. Ways in which speech is organized, cut up, or articulated. In a given context, punctuation refers to the group of occurrences by which speech reveals its syntax, distributes its semantic effects, and allows its recipients to participate or not in what is being said.

Punctuation Ways in which speech is organized, cut up, or articulated. Written sentences use signs to let readers know about cuts, changes in level, or rhythms that correspond to an ideal syntactic organization of speech. However, outside of reading, we do not speak using sentences. What we know about sentences is a resource that allows us to construct what we. Oral discourse also contains hints of punctuation, taking part as it does in socio-cultural customs and practices.

This entry on brings together a range of such practices that involve organizing and carving the flow of interactive speech into segments. In his sketch comedy show, Michel Leeb uses this analogy between sentence punctuation and narrative production as a comedic resource see also Silence. On the other hand, when a doctor dictates a diagnosis , they utter punctuation signs in a much less pronounced way.

A first example can be seen when using lexical elements. Collection Affinity. Two-years-old children learning a G.

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Hopkins poem, personal recording by Stacy Doris, Excerpt of the film Biquefarre by Georges Rouquier, Conversation with friends, excerpt of a personal recording by Nicolas Rollet, Raekwon, Ghostface Killah, excerpt of the album Striving for Perfection , Scene from a masturbation session shared via webcam, XTube, Scene from the metro, excerpt of a personal recording posted on Audioboo, Hallway conversation, personal recording by Nicolas Rollet, Excerpt of a Brazilian verbal joust, video posted on YouTube, s.

Talking dog, YouTube, the s. Conversation with friends, excerpt of a personal recording by Esther Salmona, Scene from Paris at night, personal recording, Excerpt of a language class, YouTube video, Sage Francis, Apathy, excerpt of the mixtape Still Sick Urine Trouble, Conversation between two 2-year-old children, recording by Stacy Doris, Orosko, excerpt of a message posted on YouTube, Dialogue between a father and son, video posted on YouTube, Scene from a sermon, YouTube, David Hogan and his interpreter, excerpt of a sermon in Germany, Crowd before a show, recording by Joris Lacoste, Scene from a rehearsal, excerpt of the show Star Academy , TF1, Affinity in absentia Affinity in absentia takes place when speaker B is absent but still identifiable.

Affinity in praesentia Affinity in praesentia takes place when A and B are taking part in the same speech act—in which case contamination can be seen in action. Announcement in a TGV train car, Child learning Chinese, YouTube video, Excerpt from a soccer commentary, Presentation of the Philippine show Pornikula , Excerpt of the show Tommy Teleshopping , Dutch television, Family scene, recording by Nicolas Rollet, Napoli, Kenneth E. Hagin, excerpt from a preach, Michel Thomas, method for learning German, s.

Altercation in a plane, video posted on YouTube, Monologue of a youtuber in her car, Video letter posted on YouTube, Philippe and Cooky, excerpt of a ventriloquist comedy sketch, unknown source. Date unknown. Excerpt from an oboe class, personal recording, Excerpt of a cooking show, video posted on YouTube, Alejandro Jodorowsky, excerpt of a demonstration, YouTube, Gouy Gui, excerpt of a YouTube video, Vietnamese pronunciation exercise, video posted on YouTube, unknown date. Catholic liturgy, excerpt of the show La Messe , France Culture, Excerpt of a shooting lesson, unknown source.

Triumph at the Scala of Milan, 90s. Excerpt of a sermon in Kinshasa, recording by Manuel Coursin, Fabulous Trobadors, excerpt of the recording Era pas de faire , Baby dialogue, YouTube video, Scene from a classroom, personal recording by Laurie Bellanca, Excerpt of a recital in class, unknown source. Country Joe Mc Donald, excerpt from a concert at Woodstock, Excerpt of a puppet theatre show, YouTube video, s. All-Blacks, pre-game ritual, Zoo scene, excerpt of a YouTube video, Excerpt of soccer commentary, s. Briefing before a raid, s. Video about creating a declaration of love, YouTube, Excerpt of figure skating television commentary, Excerpt of a meeting held during Occupy Wall Street, Excerpt of a game of cards, Italy, Scene of someone being arrested, field recording posted on Soundcloud, CB radio exchanges between American truck drivers, Protest, personal recording by Jeanne Robet, Protest, excerpt of a YouTube video, Excerpt of a game of WarCraft 3, Scene from a safari, excerpt of a YouTube video, Excerpt of a dinner with friends, personal recording, Chant during a protest in Athens, personal recording, Countdown in a classroom, video posted on YouTube, Mathilde Monnier and La Ribot, excerpt of the show Gustavia , Wrestling match, excerpt of the show Sur les docks , France Culture, Excerpt of the show Sur les Docks , France Culture, Excerpt of the television gameshow Jeopardy , Unison The most elementary form of chorality is certainly unison, where several individuals say the same thing at the same time.

Distributed chorality Chorality can obviously take more subtle forms than unison. Emerging chorality These forms of chorality are built on the present moment of speech: several people do the same thing together, each in their own way, while pushing what is being said in a shared direction, that is to say, while sharing an activity. Seth Gueko, excerpt of the song Les mains sales de Brasco , Babil, excerpt of a YouTube video, Excerpt of a YouTube video, Olivier Cadiot, excerpt of the text Mr Solo , personal recording, s.

Portuguese pronunciation exercise, personal recording, Interview with cyclists, excerpt of a television show, s. Jaap Blonk, excerpt of the recording Flux de Bouche , Pierre Guyotat, excerpt of a personal recording, Dizzy Rascal, excerpt of an a capella from Jus' a Rascal , Extract from a language course, YouTube, Balastik Dogg, excerpt of a freestyle posted on YouTube, Liochon, excerpt of an interview, Le petit rapporteur , TF1, Scene from a sunset, YouTube video, Henry Rollins, excerpt of the stand-up comedy show Up For It , Scene from the subway, recording by Emmanuelle Lafon, George Lindell, excerpt of a YouTube video, Excerpt of the show South Park , season 1, episode 5, Jean Sas, excerpt of a prank, Debate, semi-finals of the Samford Tournament, Excerpt of the verdict of the Khodorkovski-Lebedev trial, Summary of Game of Thrones , season 4, YouTube, Feminist chant, s.

Morphological compression Morphological compression takes place when words or phrases are literally abridged. Syntactic compression Another way of compressing discourse is to trim the very structure of what is being spoken: removing articles, pronouns, prepositions, even entire swaths of an utterance. Rhetorical compression Other possible examples of compression, albeit at a different scale, are processes where a word, sound, or phrase replace entire swaths of discourse.

Nina Simone, excerpt of a concert at the Montreux Jazz Festival, Voicemail message, Excerpt of a jihadist speech posted online, Auction at Christie's, excerpt of a YouTube video, Efrim Menuck, excerpt of A Silver Mt. Zion concert in Finland, Philip Anselmo, excerpt of a message posted on YouTube, Excerpt of a found tape recording. Raimu, excerpt of the film La Femme du boulanger by Marcel Pagnol, Excerpt of the television gameshow La ruleta de la suerte , Spanish television, Altercation in a family shelter, Holland, Excerpt of a street show, personal recording, Molly Roth, excerpt of the record Plant Talk, Daniel Cohn-Bendit, excerpt of an appearance at the European Parliament, Jane Birkin, excerpt of the live album Arabesques , Scene from a market, excerpt of a recording by Manuel Coursin, Jacques Chirac, excerpt of the presidential inauguration speech, Scene from the metro, personal recording by Nicolas Rollet, Dominique de Villepin, excerpt of a speech at the French National Assembly, Woman appealing to fellow passengers in the metro, Praha, Robert Badinter, address to the National Assembly, Francis Lalanne, excerpt of the show Avis de recherche , TF1, Distribution The most systematic example of distributed address can be seen in this list of thanks taken from a Jane Birkin concert.

Alternation Perhaps the most spectacular instances of focalization are those where a speaker shifts their focus between two recipients with very different statuses: like when this man speaks in very contrasting terms to a journalist for France Culture and to his dog; or when this voice suddenly focuses on a plant; when this truck farmer moves from an aside back to the general public; when this singing coach moves between addressing her student and an imaginary public, or even in this famous excerpt of La Femme du boulanger , where the character played by Raimu transposes his speech full of reproaches to his wife into one aimed at the female cat that has just walked into the kitchen.

Multi-focalization But focalization is even more remarkable when it happens with three, four, even five different forms of address. Evelyne Dheliat, excerpt from the TF1 weather report, Darry Cowl, excerpt of the film Assassins et voleurs by Sacha Guitry, Excerpt of a cosmetic packaging tutorial posted on YouTube, Jean-Marc Lebihan, excerpt of a performance at the Aurillac Festival, Voicemail message from Martin Juvanon de Vachat, Party conversation, recording by Olivier Nourisson, s.

Barbara, concert excerpt, unknown date. Jean-Claude Van Damme, extrait d'un entretien, Christophe Tarkos, Le petit bidon , Centre Pompidou, Gilles Deleuze, excerpt of a lecture on Leibniz, Michel Braud, excerpt of a thesis defense in the performing arts, Scene from a police station, excerpt of the film Faits divers , Raymond Depardon, Telephone conversation, recording by Nicolas Rollet, Sophie Marceau, speech before the presentation of a Palme d'or, Festival de Cannes, Excerpt of a show on RTL, Jonathan Krohn, excerpt of an appearance at the Conservative Action Conference, The fold as unrestrained drifting of the mind Freed from the worries of having to maintain a steady discursive thread, folded speech can lose itself in an unrestrained drift, tacking a conversation miles from its original subject without appearing problematic in doing so.

Victoria Azarenka and Caroline Wozniacki, excerpt of a tennis semi-final, Countdown to the launch of an H-2A rocket, Japan, Excerpt of a training session, YouTube video, Excerpt of a television news report, s. Excerpt of the show Sur les docks , France Culture, Excerpt of commentary on a trifecta bet, Pacific sound , YouTube video, Training session, excerpt of a YouTube video. Dialog between a girl and her dad on a boat, YouTube video, Cours de conduite, Excerpt of a news report in Iraq, France Info, John Jacobson, excerpt of a video dance class, Boxing training, excerpt of a YouTube video.

Instructions from a navigation system, personal recording, Excerpt from a boxing training for children, YouTube, Video of a birth posted on YouTube, Renata Sopek, excerpt of a gymnastics lesson on Croatian television, Reaction video posted on YouTube, Barack Obama, excerpt of the presidential inauguration ceremony, Soccer commentary excerpt, s.

Alfred Cortot, excerpt of a filmed piano lesson, Excerpt of an amateur porn video posted on GayTube, Ferenc Fricsay, excerpt of an orchestra rehearsal,